Module 1: Safe Prescribing for Pain (Unaccredited)

Module 1: Completion

Congratulations! You have now completed Module 1: Safe Prescribing for Pain (Unaccredited).

To learn more about the safe management of opioid pain medications, please visit Module 2: Managing Pain Patients Who Abuse Prescription Drugs (Unaccredited).

NIDA offers additional tools and resources for you and your patients, including:

NIDA also provides free drug abuse and addiction curriculum resources for faculty, resident physicians, and medical students through NIDA’s  Centers of Excellence for Physician Information.


  1. Prescription drugs: abuse and addiction. 2011. Accessed August 31, 2012.
  2. Interagency guidelines on opioid dosing for non-cancer pain. 2010 update. Accessed August 31, 2012.
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  4. Eisenberg E, McNicol ED, Carr DB. Efficacy and safety of opioid agonists in the treatment of neuropathic pain of nonmalignant origin: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. JAMA. 2005;293:3043-3052. Abstract
  5. Martell BA, O'Connor PG, Kerns RD, et al. Systematic review: opioid treatment for chronic back pain: prevalence, efficacy, and association with addiction. Ann Intern Med. 2007;146:116-127. Abstract
  6. Michna E, Ross EL, Hynes WL, et al. Predicting aberrant drug behavior in patients treated for chronic pain: importance of abuse history. J Pain Symptom Manage. 2004;28:250-258. Abstract
  7. Akbik H, Butler SF, Budman SH, Fernandez K, Katz NP, Jamison RN. Validation and clinical application of the Screener and Opioid Assessment for Patients with Pain (SOAPP). J Pain Symptom Manage. 2006;32:287-293. Abstract
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  11. Highlights of the 2009 Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) findings on drug-related emergency-room visits. 2010. Accessed August 31, 2012.
  12. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. CDC grand rounds: prescription drug overdoses: a US epidemic. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2012;61:10-13. Abstract
  13. Fishbain DA, Rosomoff HL, Rosomoff RS. Drug abuse, dependence, and addiction in chronic pain patients. Clin J Pain. 1992;8:77-85. Abstract
  14. Boscarino JA, Rukstalis M, Hoffman SN, et al. Risk factors for drug dependence among outpatients on opioid therapy in a large US healthcare system. Addiction. 2010;105:1776-1782. Abstract
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  16. Gourlay DL, Heit HA, Almahrezi A. Universal precautions in pain medicine: a rational approach to the treatment of chronic pain. Pain Med. 2005;6:107-112. Abstract
  17. Gourlay DL, Heit HA. Universal precautions revisited: managing the inherited pain patient. Pain Med. 2009;10:S115-S123. Abstract
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  21. Herring ME, Shah SK, Shah SK, Gupta AK. Current regulations and modest proposals regarding disposal of unused opioids and other controlled substances. J Am Osteopath Assoc. 2008;108:338-343. Abstract
  22. How to dispose of unused medicines (October 2009). Accessed August 31, 2012.