Preventing Drug Use among Children and Adolescents (In Brief)
Universal Programs

Caring School Community Program (Formerly, Child Development Project). This is a universal family-plus-school program to reduce risk and strengthen protective factors among elementary school children. The program focuses on strengthening students’ “sense of community,” or connection, to school. Research has shown that this sense of community has been key to reducing drug use, violence, and mental health problems, while promoting academic motivation and achievement.

Eric Schaps, Ph.D.
Caring School Community Program
Developmental Studies Center
2000 Embarcadero, Suite 305
Oakland, CA 94606-5300
Phone: 510-533-0213
Fax: 510-464-3670
Web site:

Classroom-Centered (CC) and Family-School Partnership (FSP) Intervention. The CC and FSP interventions are universal first-grade interventions to reduce later onset of violence and aggressive behavior and to improve academic performance. Program strategies include classroom management and organizational strategies, reading and mathematics curricula, parent-teacher communication, and children’s behavior management in the home.

Nicholas Ialongo, Ph.D.
Department of Mental Health
Johns Hopkins Bloomberg
School of Public Health
Johns Hopkins University
624 N. Broadway
Baltimore, MD 21205
Phone: 410-550-3441
Fax: 410-550-3461

Guiding Good Choices (GGC) (Formerly, Preparing for the Drug-Free Years). This curriculum was designed to educate parents on how to reduce risk factors and strengthen bonding in their families. In five 2-hour sessions, parents are taught skills on family involvement and interaction; setting clear expectations, monitoring behavior, and maintaining discipline; and other family management and bonding approaches.

J. David Hawkins, Ph.D.
Social Development Research Group
University of Washington
9725 Third Avenue NE, Suite 401
Seattle, WA 98115
Phone: 206-543-7655
Fax: 206-543-4507
Web site:

Life Skills Training (LST) Program. LST is a universal program for middle school students designed to address a wide range of risk and protective factors by teaching general personal and social skills, along with drug resistance skills and education. An elementary school version was recently developed and the LST booster program for high school students helps to retain the gains of the middle school program.

Gilbert Botvin, Ph.D.
Institute for Prevention Research
Weill Medical College of Cornell University
411 East 69th Street, Room 203
New York, NY 10021
Phone: 212-746-1270
Fax: 212-746-8390
Web site:

Lions-Quest Skills for Adolescence (SFA). SFA is a commercially available, universal, life skills education program for middle school students in use in schools nationwide. The focus is on teaching skills for building self-esteem and personal responsibility, communication, decision-making, resisting social influences and asserting rights, and increasing drug use knowledge and consequences.

Marvin Eisen, Ph.D.
Population Studies Center
The Urban Institute
2100 M Street, NW
Washington, DC 20037
Phone: 202-261-5858
Fax: 202-452-1840
Web site:

Project ALERT. Project ALERT is a 2-year, universal program for middle school students, designed to reduce the onset and regular use of drugs among youth. It focuses on preventing the use of alcohol, tobacco, marijuana, and inhalants. Project ALERT Plus, an enhanced version, has added a high school component, which is being tested in 45 rural communities.

Phyllis L. Ellickson, Ph.D.
Director, Center for Research on
Maternal, Child and Adolescent Health
The RAND Corporation
1700 Main Street
P.O. Box 2138
Santa Monica, CA 90407-2138
Phone: 310-393-0411
Fax: 310-451-7062
Web site:

Project STAR. Project STAR is a comprehensive drug abuse prevention community program to be used by schools, parents, community organizations, the media, and health policymakers. The middle school portion focuses on social influence and is included in classroom instruction by trained teachers over a 2-year timetable. The parent program helps parents work with children on homework, learn family communication skills, and get involved in community action.

Karen Bernstein, M.P.H.
University of Southern California
Institute for Prevention Research
1000 S. Fremont Avenue, Unit #8 Alhambra, CA 91803
Phone: 626-457-6687
Fax: 626-457-6695

Promoting Alternative Thinking Strategies (PATHS). PATHS is a comprehensive program for promoting emotional health and social skills. The program also focuses on reducing aggression and behavior problems in elementary school children, while enhancing the educational process in the classroom.

Mark T. Greenberg, Ph.D.
Prevention Research Center
Pennsylvania State University
110 Henderson Building-South
University Park, PA 16802-6504
Phone: 814-863-0112
Fax: 814-865-2530
Web site:

Skills, Opportunity, And Recognition (SOAR) (Formerly, Seattle Social Development Program). This universal school-based intervention for grades one through six seeks to reduce childhood risks for delinquency and drug abuse by enhancing protective factors. The multi-component intervention combines training for teachers, parents, and children during the elementary grades to promote children’s bonding to school, positive school behavior, and academic achievement.

J. David Hawkins, Ph.D.
Social Development Research Group
University of Washington 9725 Third Avenue NE, Suite 401
Seattle, WA 98115
Phone: 206-543-7655
Fax: 206-543-4507
Web site:

The Strengthening Families Program: For Parents and Youth 10–14 (SFP 10–14) (Formerly, the Iowa Strengthening Families Program). This universal evidence-based program offers seven two hour sessions, each attended by youth and their parents, and is designed to help families to have better communication skills, teach peer pressure skills  and prevent teen substance abuse. It has been conducted through partnerships that include state university researchers, cooperative extension staff, local schools, and other community organizations.
Cathy Hockaday
Program Coordinator
Strengthening Families Program: For Parents and Youth 10-14
2625 N. Loop Dr. Suite 2400
Ames, IA  50010
Phone: 515-294-7601
Web Site: