NIDA-supported research over the past 3 decades has led to evidence-based early intervention and substance abuse prevention programs that span the prenatal period, infancy and toddlerhood (0 to 3 years), preschool (ages 3 to 6), and the transition to elementary school (ages 6 to 8). The programs listed in this section are arranged by developmental period. Within each age range, programs are presented according to level of prevention — universal, selective, and tiered.
More detailed information on each of these programs can be found in the original publication on the NIDA website at www.drugabuse.gov/earlychildhood.
- Universal: for everyone in the population regardless of risk — for example, all children in a preschool or first- grade classroom or all children in a community.
- Selective: for groups of children who are at risk due to some factor they have in common — for example, children with behavior problems or those living in a high poverty or crime area or in foster care.
- Tiered: targets more than one level of risk — for example, a universal intervention that also screens for more severe problems and risks and provides additional services for those in need.