In July 2020, NIDA Director Nora Volkow established NIDA’s Racial Equity Initiative to organize the Institute’s efforts with the goal of addressing the impact of structural racism on addiction science and to take action to promote racial equity in NIDA’s workplace, workforce, and research portfolio. Workgroups of committed volunteers from across NIDA Headquarters (HQ) and the Intramural Research Program (IRP) were established to act in each of these three areas. A Town Hall was convened to launch the effort, which was followed by an extensive series of listening sessions held by each workgroup, a NIDA workplace climate survey, and a scientific meeting focused on enhancing health disparities research related to substance use and addiction. These opportunities to listen to community input have shaped ongoing activities and have informed this Action Plan toward the goal of racial equity. NIDA strongly supports the NIH-wide UNITE Initiative to end structural racism, and the complementary activities of NIDA’s Racial Equity Initiative are intended to facilitate impactful change in NIDA’s specific mission space.
The NIDA Racial Equity Initiative Workplace Workgroup recognizes the insidious effects of racism and unconscious bias on staff, the NIDA workplace, and in our society. Through awareness of NIDA's current culture, frank discussions, and implementation of subsequent transformative projects and initiatives, the Workplace Workgroup seeks to foster an environment in which harassment and racism are not tolerated and promote a culture of justice, equity, diversity and inclusion.
- To achieve the mission, NIDA undertook initial activities to assess the NIDA workplace, identify actions to promote racial equity among all staff, and implement those actions, including the following:
- Developed an annual NIDA Climate Survey for all staff
- Held four listening and discussion sessions with NIDA staff since summer 2020
- Designed and provided training to educate NIDA staff on disparities and barriers
- The short-term and long-term plans described here will be informed by ongoing reassessment to ensure that action items are data-driven and continually improved.
Goals and Objectives
Goal 1. Implement regular communications to staff about NIDA’s commitment and efforts to promote racial justice, equity, diversity, inclusion and respect in the workplace.
- Objective 1.1. Develop short and long-term goals for how NIDA will address issues related to racial equity; develop guidance and improve the integration of all staff.
- Objective 1.2. Develop and implement a positive statement about the type of environment NIDA is cultivating and its commitment to protect staff from retaliation.
- Objective 1.3. Continue regular NIDA Town Hall meetings to increase transparency, trust, and communication.
- Objective 1.4. Enhance the onboarding experience to include information about NIDA’s REI; NIDA's core values related to justice, equity, diversity, and inclusion and commitment to addressing racism or harassment in the NIDA workplace; and how to get involved.
Progress: NIDA’s commitment to the REI has been posted to the NIDA website at www.drugabuse.gov/about-nida/racial-equity-initiative. NIDA Executive Officers met with every NIDA division and office to discuss NIDA's commitment to a respectful climate free of harassment and retaliation in spring/summer 2021, and Dr. Volkow has reiterated this commitment in her communication with staff. NIDA Town Hall meetings are conducted on a monthly basis, and a Town Hall on REI topics is planned to occur at least once per year. Actions to enhance the onboarding experience to inform new staff about NIDA’s REI and related resources began in fall 2021.
Goal 2. Engage staff to assess racial and ethnic justice, equity, diversity, and inclusion concerns in the workplace.
- Objective 2.1. Conduct an annual survey to all staff to assess the NIDA climate. Share the results and use them to guide targeted objective items. This work will be done through a contract to ensure impartiality.
- Objective 2.2. Hold listening sessions and discussion sessions, conduct focus groups, and implement other methods for feedback to help improve NIDA’s work environment and raise awareness.
- Objective 2.3. Develop ways for staff/trainees to critique/provide feedback on supervisor’s/mentor's behaviors, attitudes, and perceived follow through on diversity and equity principles and programs.
Progress: A contract for external Equity Diversity and Inclusion (EDI) consultant services has been awarded. These consultant services will facilitate NIDA’s engagement with staff to assess racial and ethnic justice, equity, diversity, and inclusion concerns in the workplace. The contractor has conducted an analysis of the 2020 climate survey, the results were briefed to NIDA staff in January 2022, and the survey analysis report has been posted to the NIDA intranet. A follow-on climate survey for all NIDA staff is planned for 2022. Several workplace listening sessions were held in summer/fall 2020; additional listening sessions and focus groups will be offered in 2022.
Goal 3. Provide training for NIDA staff to prevent all forms of harassment and promote racial equity, inclusion, and diversity.
- Objective 3.1. Hold Bystander Training for NIDA supervisors and staff to help identify forms of harassment based on multiple identities; provide examples of how staff can be supportive of individuals experiencing harassment; and assist staff in responding to harassment they are witnessing either in the moment or afterward.
- Objective 3.2. Assess the availability of, and interest in, training opportunities for NIDA staff in the arena of reducing racial bias and improving inclusion. Require training for all staff when determined critical to form the foundation for NIDA climate and culture.
- Objective 3.2. Provide training to NIDA leadership and other supervisors on promoting racial equity and supporting a diverse workforce.
Progress: Fourteen NIDA-specific Bystander Training sessions were offered in spring 2021, and two additional sessions were offered in August 2021. More than 60% of all NIDA staff have completed this instructor-led two-hour training. Additional trainings and assessments are planned for 2022.
Goal 4. Foster a culture of respect and anti-harassment; commit to appropriate action on violations of NIDA values, principles and policies.
- Objective 4.1. Educate staff on how to report instances of racial bias or discrimination; on the process for inquiry into allegations; and on the array of consequences for unacceptable conduct.
- Objective 4.2. Develop diversity appreciation activities and sponsor a series of discussions that focus on understanding different cultures. There are biases that occur within races, ethnicities, and cultures, as well as between them. A series of discussions that focus on race, ethnicity, or culture could allow for greater sharing, understanding, and visibility.
- Objective 4.3. Identify and incentivize inclusive, innovative, and proactive behavior.
Progress: NIDA Executive Officers met with every NIDA division and office to discuss our commitment to a respectful climate free of harassment and retaliation in spring/summer 2021. Diversity appreciation activities and discussions, as well as the development of means to incentivize inclusive behavior, are planned for 2022.
Goal 5. Promote diversity and inclusion specific to the needs of NIDA’s Intramural Research Program (IRP) and Headquarters staff.
- Objective 5.1. Create a senior diversity and inclusion position within NIDA IRP to support Principal Investigators (PIs) and trainees.
- Objective 5.2 Establish a NIDA-wide Diversity and Inclusion Officer
- Objective 5.3. Develop an internal NIDA mentoring and championing program open to all staff. Identify and address potential barriers to participation.
- Objective 5.4. Disseminate NIDA hiring, promotion, and detail opportunities to all staff.
- Objective 5.5. Assist supervisors with strategies to advertise NIDA vacancies to increase the diversity of the applicant pool.
- Objective 5.6. Examine NIDA workforce, positions, and pay with respect to racial and gender equity.
Progress: The NIDA-IRP Associate Director for Diversity and Inclusion, Dr. Yeka Aponte, oversees our multi-component efforts regarding Diversity, Equity and Inclusion. These programs currently include: Community Outreach Group (COG); Diversity and Outreach Training Programs, such as the Scientific Director’s Fellowship for Diversity in Research (SDFDR); Recruitment and Training to Unlock Research Potential (RTURP); and the trainee-/fellow-led Inclusion, Diversity & Equity Activities Committee (IDEA). Additional objectives in support of promoting diversity and inclusion specific to NIDA’s IRP are planned for 2022.
A NIDA-wide Diversity and Inclusion Officer will be appointed—following the receipt of guidance from NIH on proposed duties and seniority of the position—to ensure consistency across NIH Institutes and Centers.
A Workplace Workgroup subgroup was formed in May 2021to oversee the development of an internal NIDA mentoring circles program. A draft program description has been developed and two open listening sessions were held in fall 2021to gather staff input. The goal is to launch a pilot program in spring 2022.
The NIDA Racial Equity Initiative Scientific Workforce Diversity Workgroup seeks to increase racial and ethnic diversity, equity, and inclusivity within the addiction research community by identifying disparities and systemic barriers, engaging the community at all education and career levels, and implementing programs and funding opportunities to enhance, promote, and retain historically underrepresented groups (URG) in addiction science within the US.
- In support of this mission, NIDA developed goals and objectives which were guided by the following activities:
- Conducted more than 10, one-hour internal listening sessions to solicit feedback
- Ongoing external listening sessions
- Reviewed literature and resources that center on the experiences and suggestions of people typically underrepresented or marginalized in science
- These action plans will be continuously reviewed, reconsidered, and adjusted as we listen and learn more.
Goals and Objectives
Goal 1. Identify disparities, obstacles, and systemic barriers to pursuing careers in addiction science.
- Objective 1.1. Conduct a career trajectory survey of former NIDA trainees, followed by further engagement with interested stakeholders to explore best practices to retain people from URGs in addiction research.
Progress: We have formed a Retention and Sustainability subgroup to research the barriers to sustaining a career in addiction research.
Goal 2. Increase awareness of addiction science as a career opportunity in K-12 education.
- Objective 2.1. Leverage partnerships associated with NIDA’s Drug and Alcohol Facts Week to connect NIDA scientists with K-12 schools.
- Objective 2.2. Conduct live roundtables that highlight science and research as a career option, including participants from traditional URGs.
- Objective 2.3. Create a volunteer group of addiction scientists–including graduate students, post-bacs, post-docs, PIs, and non-academic track positions–to provide outreach sessions and information on addiction career pathways with a focus on youth (grades K-12).
- Objective 2.4. Develop an online database of NIDA career resources—including a career paths video of scientists in different careers at different stages—to be shared with traditionally URG that contains contact information for the volunteer group of addiction scientists (from Objective 2.3).
Progress: This year, we partnered with NIDA’s Communications Branch to create NIDA Scientist Virtual Q&A Videos, in which NIDA IRP junior scientists from diverse backgrounds and interests engaged in Q&A with young adults. These engaging videos have received over 10,000 views and have an average of 28% more watch time over all other NIDA YouTube channel videos. In addition, a CVS/Discovery Education Facebook live roundtable with an IRP scientist exposed an estimated 15,960 students to careers in addiction science during its live broadcast and has continued its reach as it remains posted on the DVS/Discovery Education Dose of Knowledge website. Additional objectives to connect youth, particularly youth from URG, with addiction scientists and career resources, are ongoing.
Goal 3. Increase access to and engagement with NIDA across the career pipeline to improve URG diversity in the addiction science workforce.
- Objective 3.1. Increase outreach to and develop relationships and partnerships with Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs), institutions with demonstrated commitment to training students from underrepresented racial and ethnic groups, and minority affairs and sponsored business offices across U.S. institutions.
- Objective 3.2. Amass large dissemination lists to be used for various outreach efforts (e.g., Request for Information (RFI), workshops, networking).
- Objective 3.3. Develop partnerships with scientific societies to learn about their diversity-focused activities; partner to disseminate information; and support efforts to further diversify their membership and meetings.
Progress: NIDA established an IRP undergraduate research internship pilot, and the first cohort of six students from a minority-serving institution (MSI) completed their internship in August 2021. A second cohort from the same MSI will began in fall 2021, and a third cohort is planned for summer/fall 2022 and will expand to include students from other local institutions with demonstrated commitment to training students from underrepresented racial and ethnic groups. Work is also underway to develop a workshop series at HBCUs to provide in-depth information about the NIH. Further, to promote outreach efforts, a dissemination list was created, which continues to be updated and used in a variety of ways. Notably, the list has been used to help promote responses to NIH’s UNITE initiative (established to address structural racism within the biomedical research enterprise) and to disseminate NIDA-related information. The Workforce Workgroup has also partnered with multiple scientific societies to discuss collaborative efforts to improve diversity, equity, and inclusion in these societies, in scientific meetings, and in addiction science as a whole. Finally, the Workforce Workgroup continues to facilitate listening sessions with faculty from HBCUs, other institutions with demonstrated commitment to training students from underrepresented racial and ethnic groups, as well as investigators at all career stages, to illuminate areas in which NIDA support could help promote addiction science at these institutions.
Goal 4. Implement mentorship, networking programs and funding opportunities to enhance, promote, and retain historically underrepresented groups (URG) in addiction science.
- Objective 4.1. Create a mentoring network within the addiction science workforce (see Objective 2.3).
- Objective 4.2. Enhance recognition and visibility of URGs (e.g., travel awards, website spotlights, trainee spotlights, and speaker invitations).
- Objective 4.3. Expand the NIDA Diversity Scholars Network (NDSN) to include more scholars.
- Objective 4.4. Plan grant writing workshops for HBCUs and MSIs.
- Objective 4.5. Create and expand existing internship programs with HBCUs and MSIs.
Progress: Towards these goals, we have already increased funding for related programs, increased the number of NIDA summer interns by more than 20, and strengthened the mentoring provided to NIDA summer interns. For example, we added a weekly course series on graduate school, interactions with current scientists, and courses on different topics of addiction research. Additionally, the second cohort of students from an MSI are participating in the IRP Undergraduate Research Internship program for the 2020-2021 academic year, and the third cohort will include students from other HBCUs and MSIs. Further, the NDSN—which aims to enhance the funding success of early-stage investigators from diverse backgrounds, including those from URGs—accepted 14 scholars in 2021. Future grant applications for this program will be monitored and tracked. We are also developing a grant workshop series for investigators from HBCUs and other institutions with demonstrated commitment to training students from underrepresented racial and ethnic groups and investigators from diverse backgrounds, including those from URGs, to provide an inside view of the NIH grant and review process and to address topics of interest to the investigators. To increase recognition of URG scientists, we highlight trainees in our bimonthly newsletter. Additionally, we invite past scholars from the NDSN meeting to share their perspective on how to be a successful scientist.
Goal 5. Implement policy changes that address barriers, inequities, and anti-Black systemic racism to create institutional-level change in recruiting and retaining a diverse workforce in addiction science.
- Objective 5.1. Work with the Workplace Workgroup to implement training efforts among NIDA staff, and with professional societies to promote training within their membership.
- Objective 5.2. Review and participate in the NIH Request for Information (RFI), Inviting Comments and Suggestions to Advance and Strengthen Racial Equity, Diversity, and Inclusion in the Biomedical Research Workforce and Advance Health Disparities and Health Equity Research (NOT-OD-21-066).
- Objective 5.3. Review and develop action items based on career trajectory survey results.
- Objective 5.4. Add requirements and review criteria to FOAs, thereby holding PIs and institutions accountable for diversity and inclusivity training within their local environment.
- Objective 5.5. Reform grant and review policies for NIH applications (e.g., addressing diversity in applications; addressing implicit bias in reviews).
- Objective 5.6. Improve, expand, or develop NIDA programs and collaborations with institutions and substance use disorder (SUD) investigators.
- Objective 5.7. Reinstate external listening sessions with universities. Solicit input from institutions and external stakeholders on future action of NIDA workforce diversity efforts and initiatives.
Progress: We are analyzing feedback received from the RFI (NOT-OD-21-066) on approaches to advance racial equity, diversity, and inclusion within the biomedical research workforce to inform the ongoing efforts of NIDA’s REI. We included a new requirement in the FOA ‘Providing Research Education Experiences to Enhance Diversity in the Next Generation of Substance Use and Addiction Scientists (R25 Clinical Trials Not Allowed)’ PAR-20-236 to include an ‘Enhancing Biomedical Workforce Statement’ and a ‘Recruitment Plan to Enhance Diversity’ in the Additional Review Consideration criteria which are all discussed before a grant is given a final score. This is the first time that this type of diversity recruitment language has been added as scorable review criteria. We will review the outcomes and impact of this new language and adjust future actions accordingly.
As progress towards expanding NIDA’s programs and collaborations, the IRP’s Scientific Director’s Fellowship for Diversity in Research (SDFDR) program has received additional funding to increase the number of postdoctoral fellowships supported by the program. The NIDA Extramural outreach programs have increased scholars in the NDSN program and increased funding for the NIDA Summer Research Internship Program, the NIDA Diversity Supplement Program, Research Centers in Minority Institutions (RCMI) program supplements in substance use and addiction research for MSIs. Additionally, the Office of Diversity and Health Disparities (ODHD) staff is making regular presentations to R25 programs focused on diversity outreach and recruitment. Further, we have held listening sessions with seven different scientific societies and will continue these discussions to identify additional strategies to recruit and retain a diverse workforce.
Research Gaps and Opportunities Workgroup
The NIDA Research Gaps and Opportunities (RGO) Workgroup will realize NIDA’s commitment to eliminating racial inequities in addiction research by evaluating how effectively NIDA-funded research addresses structural racism and health disparities in addiction science. Objectives will center on listening to communities and researchers engaged in this work, reviewing our portfolio of research and implementing steps to build science to address systematic racism and health disparities (HD). The team will strive to support action-oriented science to counteract the impact of discrimination. The overarching goal is to increase support for research projects that will impact disparities and that have not been given priority for funding.
- To achieve the mission, NIDA undertook initial activities to identify gaps, barriers, and research priorities:
- Held a scientific meeting to get input from the field, Enhancing Health Disparities Research Related to Substance Use and Addiction: Research Gaps and Opportunities, on February 16-17, 2021
- Gathered information from NIDA staff, by holding listening sessions and providing office hours for open discussion
- Conducted portfolio analysis to assess NIDA’s current research portfolio related to minority health and health disparities
- Additional steps to be taken include the following:
- Obtain input via a Request for Information (RFI) to identify additional areas of research or research processes to prioritize
- Emphasize racial equity in the NIDA strategic plan
- Modify the REI RGO Action Plan as new knowledge emerges
- NIDA is committed to continuing to evaluate this area of science and engagement with the field to ensure maximal responsiveness. These efforts include the following:
- Conducting portfolio analysis on a regular basis and tracking progress on goals
- Developing mechanisms to foster dialogue with the research community on a sustained basis, including holding listening sessions to identify research gaps
Research Goals and Objectives
The listening sessions held with staff, the portfolio analysis and the scientific meeting have led to the identification of initial research priorities, that are expected to evolve over time. Goals and objectives aimed at enhancing research where it has the greatest potential to reduce racial inequities in substance use and addiction include, but are not limited to, the following:
Goal 1. Understand the role of social determinants in substance use and misuse.
- Objective 1.1. Explore social determinants of health and substance use disorder (SUD) outcomes in basic, clinical, epidemiological, services, and implementation studies.
- Objective 1.2. Assess vulnerabilities, mechanisms, and progression of substance use and SUD in disproportionately impacted populations.
- Objective 1.3. Assess and address stigma, discrimination, and prejudice in the context of SUD and treatment.
- Objective 1.4. Explore etiology, protective factors, and challenges to the medical model.
- Objective 1.5. Develop comprehensive and holistic tools to measure social and economic factors.
- Objective 1.6. Advance basic science to understand racial disparities, including neuroscience and epigenomics, as ways to understand the consequences of racial discrimination
- Objective 1.7. Ensure that clinical trials include underrepresented groups to investigate differences in treatment responses based on race and ethnicity to help tailor more personalized interventions
Goal 2. Identify interventions that address social determinants and are culturally competent.
- Objective 2.1. Develop and test interventions for SUD that improve social determinants of health by addressing structural racism and historical trauma.
- Objective 2.2. Develop and test targeted culturally specific prevention and treatment interventions.
- Objective 2.3. Advance research to scale and implement evidence-based interventions in disproportionately impacted populations.
- Objective 2.4. Conduct health equity research in the justice system, with a focus on linkage to substance use and HIV treatment
Goal 3. Utilize a research framework that supports diversity, equity and inclusion.
Objective 3.1. Build research partnerships with state/local agencies and private health systems to develop models to eliminate systemic barriers to addiction care.
- Objective 3.2. Include research designs and methodologies that enhance racial equity research and include measures of social and economic factors all NIDA clinical, epidemiological, services, and implementation studies.
- Objective 3.3. Improve diversity, ancestry, and data quality of biorepositories and data sets.
- Objective 3.4. Identify biases in scientific review.
- Objective 3.5. Develop strategies to ensure that research is community-engaged (benefitting from community knowledge of areas in need of deeper understanding) and that developed solutions will work in community settings.
- Objective 3.6. Prioritize administrative processes within NIDA program and scientific review (Center for Scientific Review) to enhance racial equity.
Progress: Since the formation of the REI, NIDA staff focused on research gaps and opportunities have worked to develop new initiatives to address gaps, many of which are forthcoming. Towards achieving the research goals and objectives, NIDA staff have participated in the NIH-wide National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities (NIMHD) RFA: Understanding and Addressing the Impact of Structural Racism and Discrimination on Minority Health and Health Disparities (R01 Clinical Trial Optional) (RFA-MD-21-004). We also developed two Notices of Special Interest (NOSIs), published on May 17, 2021, to supplement currently funded projects to address health disparities research questions: NOT-DA-21-045: Administrative Supplements to support engagement of functionally diverse teams to advance ongoing NIDA-funded research and NOT-DA-21-044: Administrative Supplements to Support Research on Health Equity in NIDA-funded Grant Awards . Eighteen awards were issued. We are also developing a training module for responsible use of large data sets for analysis of variables relating to race and ethnicity.
This Action Plan is structured around the goals and objectives that emerged from the feedback provided to NIDA’s REI through listening sessions, office hours, and the proceedings of the scientific meeting Enhancing Health Disparities Research Related to Substance Use and Addiction: Research Gaps and Opportunities. It is intended to be a living document. As we accelerate progress across these priorities, we are mindful that our efforts must be continually informed by the experiences and perspectives of those impacted by racial inequity. We remain committed to seeking feedback from NIDA employees and the full range of NIDA stakeholders and to incorporating this feedback into a dynamic and ongoing strategy toward racial equity. We seek to measure progress through objective measurement and accountability.